xBASE bacterial genome annotation service


This page offers a quick and easy annotation service for bacterial genome sequences. It is particularly suitable for unfinished genome sequences where a similar reference sequence is available. One main advantage this service has over others is speed; an E. coli size sequence should be ready in as little as 20 minutes.

To use, submit a file containing one or more FASTA-formatted nucleotide sequences (contigs produced by a whole genome assembler, for example). To guide gene prediction and annotation, select the closest complete reference sequence for your genome. A link to the finished annotation will be sent to the e-mail address you enter, so please double-check it is correct.

Submit a nucleotide sequence

Reference Genome:


The software performs the following steps:


If you use this interface for published work, please cite the following references.

  1. Delcher AL, Bratke KA, Powers EC, Salzberg SL. Identifying bacterial genes and endosymbiont DNA with Glimmer. Bioinformatics. 2007 Mar 15;23(6):673-9.
  2. Lowe TM, Eddy SR. tRNAscan-SE: a program for improved detection of transfer RNA genes in genomic sequence. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Mar 1;25(5):955-64.
  3. Lagesen K, Hallin P, Rodland EA, Staerfeldt HH, Rognes T, Ussery DW. RNAmmer: consistent and rapid annotation of ribosomal RNA genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35(9):3100-8.
  4. Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schaffer AA, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Miller W, et al. Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Sep 1;25(17):3389-402.
  5. Chaudhuri RR, Loman NJ, Snyder LA, Bailey CM, Stekel DJ, Pallen MJ. xBASE2: a comprehensive resource for comparative bacterial genomics. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Jan;36(Database issue):D543-6.
  6. Kurtz S, Phillippy A, Delcher AL, Smoot M, Shumway M, Antonescu C, et al. Versatile and open software for comparing large genomes. Genome Biol. 2004;5(2):R12.


For questions or comments about this service, please contact n.j.loman@bham.ac.uk.